Most aromatic spices are grown by sowing seeds. For annuals and biennials, this is the only possible way. Usually sown in the spring, when there is no longer any danger of late spring frosts, be directly on the bed (and after emergence, the plantings are thinned out to the required distance in accordance with the size of the bred species), or in boxes and flower pots. In the drawers you can prepare seedlings in early spring. Then you have to cover it at night with glass or a synthetic film that holds air moisture well and protects delicate sprouts from night cold. Seedlings grow faster (already strong plants are supposed to be transferred to the beds, placing them immediately at an appropriate distance from each other), the spice is harvested at least a month earlier.
As for light and heat, these indicators depend on the geographical location of the garden. Therefore, here our capabilities are more limited than in relation to soil. Nevertheless, in our power, in your garden plot, choose a place where there will be a maximum of sunlight for a bed with spicy plants, bringing the existing conditions closer to ideal, typical for a plant in its homeland. For our concerns, the plant will thank, giving a crop containing aromatic and flavoring substances in the tissues.
Any, even the best soil becomes poorer over time: after all, plants constantly draw nutrients from it. Therefore, the soil on the bed should be systematically fertilized, it is advisable to water with solutions of combined mineral fertilizers. Fertilizers must be applied in spring and early summer, during the period of intensive plant growth. However, fertilizers must be applied carefully, otherwise an excessive increase in green mass will be detrimental to taste and aroma. It remains to be recalled that most spicy plants are among those in need of lime in the soil. Therefore, where there is little calcium in the earth, it should be added, preferably in the form of ground limestone as advised by wholesale spice distributors.
Biennials, which are bred for leaves and roots, are grown in the same way as annual plants, otherwise they will quickly bloom, grow, and die after seed formation. Perennial plants can be propagated not only by seeds, but also vegetatively, by dividing, for example, bulbs (garlic, saffron), as well as older bushes of the plant. The last operation is recommended to be carried out in spring or early summer so that the shoots are thoroughly rooted before the onset of winter. Through this intervention, old plants are rejuvenated at the same time, again starting to produce high yields for several years. In autumn, one should not forget that almost all species of perennial aromatic plants come from warm places where there are no frosts (thyme, hyssop, sage, oregano, etc.). Therefore, they should be cut off about 10 cm from the surface of the earth, and there, where the soil freezes, cover with leaves, straw or coniferous spruce branches. In the spring, when the plant wakes up, the insulated warmth material is carefully scooped up so that new shoots do not steam up under it and become infected with fungal diseases.
At present, hydroponics is becoming more and more popular in our everyday life, that is, the cultivation of plants in solutions of mineral salts. This method is especially good for growing ornamental plants in apartments, since there is no need for daily watering. Hydroponically aromatic plants can also be bred. To do this, you must have light-tight dishes of the appropriate size and shape and one of the mixtures of mineral salts sold in stores. You should only try which of the available mixtures is best for your aromatic plants of your choice. An example of a culture recommended for cultivation in a hydroponic solution is Capsicum frutescens, which blooms and bears fruit all year round. It gives us spices and aesthetic pleasure: this bush, in addition to beautiful glossy green leaves, white flowers and gradually ripening green, yellow, orange and fiery red fruits adorn. One such plant is able to provide the whole family with always fresh pods of hot pepper.